Notes 1-10

1. Statement of accounting policies

a) Statement of compliance

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with applicable accounting standards, including Financial Reporting Standard 102 – ‘The Financial Reporting Standard applicable in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland’ (‘FRS 102’). The financial statements have been prepared on the going concern basis under the historical cost basis except for the modification to a fair value basis for certain financial instruments as specified in the accounting policies below and the measurement of the net defined benefit pension liability at the fair value of the plan assets less the present value of the defined benefit obligation.

This is the first year in which the financial statements have been prepared under FRS 102.

b) Trading policy

In general it is the Parent Society’s trading policy to provide a return to supplying members equivalent to net proceeds realised in each product group. Accordingly the Parent Society’s purchase prices are subject to regular revision to reflect average market realisations. Arising from this policy, a liability is recognised in the accounts for any amounts outstanding to members.

c) Basis of consolidation

The financial statements of the Parent Society and its subsidiary undertakings for the period from 28 December 2014 to 26 December 2015 are incorporated in the Group financial statements.

(i) Subsidiary undertakings are included in the financial statements from the date on which control is obtained and cease to be consolidated from the date on which control is lost by the Group. Subsidiaries are all entities where the Group has control. Control is the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities.

(ii) An associate is an entity, being neither a subsidiary nor a joint venture, in which the Group holds a long-term interest and where the Group has significant influence. The Group considers that it has significant influence where it has the power to participate in the financial and operating decisions of the associate. The results of associates are accounted for using the equity method of accounting.

(iii) Non-controlling interests represent the proportion of the profit or loss and net assets of a subsidiary attributable to equity interests that are not owned, directly or indirectly through subsidiaries, by the Company. The Group treats transactions with non-controlling interests as transactions with equity owners of the Group. For purchases from non-controlling interests, the difference between any consideration paid and the relevant share acquired of the carrying value of net assets of the subsidiary is recognised directly in equity.

Gains or losses on disposals to non-controlling interests, without a loss of control, are also recognised directly in equity.

(iv) A discontinued operation is a component of an entity that has been disposed of and:

  • a. represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations; or
  • b. was part of a single co-ordinated plan to dispose of a separate line of business or geographical area of operations; or
  • c. was a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to resale.

(v) When the Group ceases to have control any gain or loss is recognised in the Income Statement. The cumulative amounts of any difference on translation, recognised in equity, are not included in the gain or loss on disposal and are transferred to retained earnings. The gain or loss also includes amounts included in Other Comprehensive Income that are required to be reclassified to the Income Statement. Where control of a subsidiary is achieved in stages, the initial acquisition that gave the Group control is accounted for as a business combination. Thereafter where the Group increases its controlling interest in the subsidiary the transaction is treated as a transaction between equity holders. Any difference between the fair value of the consideration paid and the carrying amount of the non-controlling interest acquired is recognised directly in equity. No changes are made to the carrying value of assets, liabilities or provisions for contingent liabilities.

(vi) Intercompany transactions, balances and unrealised gains and losses on transactions between Group companies are eliminated upon consolidation.

d) Revenue recognition

Revenue represents the fair value of consideration received or receivable for goods and services supplied to external customers exclusive of trade discounts and value added tax. The Group recognises revenue when (a) the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer; (b) the amount of revenue can be measured reliably; and (c) it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the Group.

Services are deemed to have been delivered on the rendering of the related service. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate over the period to expected maturity.

Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

e) Exceptional items

The Group has adopted an Income Statement format which highlights significant items within the Group’s results for the year. Exceptional items are those items of income and expense that the Group considers are material and/or of such a nature that their separate disclosure is relevant to a better understanding of the Group’s financial performance. Judgement is used by the Group in assessing the particular items which, by virtue of their materiality and/or nature, are disclosed in the Group Income Statement and related notes as exceptional items.

f) Inventory

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and estimated selling price less costs to sell. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. Cost comprises purchase price, including taxes and duties and transport costs attributable to bringing the inventory to its present location and condition. Selling price less costs to sell is based on contracted or estimated selling prices, less selling and distribution expenses. At the end of each reporting period inventories are assessed for impairment. If an item of inventory is impaired, an impairment provision is raised to reduce the carrying value of inventory.

g) Private storage aid income

The Parent Society places inventory in an EU scheme called Private Storage Aid during certain months of the year. The income earned from the EU on this inventory is accounted for within revenue as it is earned.

h) Tangible assets

Tangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses. Cost includes original purchase price, costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to its location and working condition for its intended use.

Tangible assets are derecognised on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected. On disposal, the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount is recognised in the Income Statement and included in exceptional items.

Depreciation is not provided on freehold land. Depreciation on other tangible assets is provided on a straight-line basis as appropriate to allocate the depreciable amount to their residual values over their estimated useful lives, as follows:

  • Freehold buildings: 2% to 5%
  • Leasehold land and buildings: written off over the term of the lease or its estimated useful life, whichever is the lower
  • Plant and equipment: 5% to 33%
  • Motor vehicles: 10% to 33%

The assets’ residual values and useful lives are reviewed and adjusted, if appropriate in each reporting period. The effect of any change is accounted for prospectively. Provision is made for any impairment of tangible assets. Assets in the course of construction are stated at cost. These assets are not depreciated until they are available for use.

i) Leased assets

Leases that do not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as operating leases. Operating lease rentals are charged to the Income Statement on a straight line basis over the lease term. Incentives received to enter into an operating lease are credited to the Income Statement on a straight line basis over the period of the lease. The Group has taken advantage of the exemption in respect of lease incentives in existence on the date of transition to FRS 102 and continues to credit such lease incentives to the Income Statement over the period to the first review date on which the rent is adjusted to market rates.

j) Grants

Capital based grants are accounted for in the period they are received and are treated as deferred credits. These grants are released to the Income Statement on the same basis as the related assets are depreciated.

k) Business combinations and goodwill

Business combinations are accounted for using the purchase method. The cost of the business combination is measured at the aggregate of the fair values (at the date of exchange) of assets given, liabilities incurred or assumed, and equity instruments issued by the Group in exchange for control of the acquiree plus costs directly attributable to the business combination. Contingent consideration is initially recognised at estimated amount where the consideration is probable and can be measured reliably. Where the contingent consideration is not considered probable or can’t be measured reliably but subsequently becomes probable and measurable or contingent consideration previously recognised is adjusted, the amounts are recognised as an adjustment to the cost of the business combination.

Any excess of the cost of the business combination over the acquirer’s interest in the net fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities is recognised as goodwill. On acquisition, goodwill is allocated to cash generating units (“CGU”) that are expected to benefit from the combination.

Goodwill is amortised over its expected useful life on a straight line basis, subject to a maximum of 15 years. Goodwill is assessed for impairment when there are indications of impairment and any impairment is charged to the Income Statement. Reversals of impairment are recognised when the reason for the impairment no longer applies.

Goodwill is amortised over a period greater than five years because it arises on the acquisition of profitable businesses which are expected to remain profitable over the long term. The Group shall recognise in its financial statements provisional amounts for the items for which the accounting is incomplete. Within twelve months after the acquisition date, the Group shall retrospectively adjust the provisional amounts recognised as assets and liabilities at the acquisition date to reflect new information obtained.

l) Intangible assets

Intangible assets are measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation is calculated using the straight-line method to allocate the depreciable amount of the assets to their residual value over their expected useful lives as follows:

Software 3-5 years

Supply Contracts- over the period of the contract which ranges from 10-12 years

Software development costs are recognised as an intangible asset when all of the following criteria are demonstrated:

  • The technical feasibility of completing the software so that it will be available for use or sale.
  • The intention to complete the software and use or sell it.
  • The ability to use the software or to sell it.
  • How the software will generate probable future economic benefits.
  • The availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the software.
  • The ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the software during its development.

Acquired software costs are recognised as an intangible asset at their purchase price and amortised over the estimated economic useful life of the asset.

If there is an indication that there has been a significant change in amortisation rate or residual value of an intangible asset, the amortisation of that asset is revised prospectively to reflect the new expectations.

m) Research and development

Research and development expenditure is written off to the Income Statement in the period in which it is incurred

n) Employee benefits
(i) Short term benefits

Short term benefits, including holiday pay, are recognised as an expense in the period in which the service is received.

(ii) Pension obligations

The Group operates a number of defined benefit and defined contribution plans, the assets of which are held in separate trustee administered funds. A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which an entity pays fixed contributions into a separate entity and has no legal or constructive obligations to pay further amounts. A defined benefit plan is a post-employment plan other than a defined contribution plan.

(iii) Termination benefits

Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated before normal retirement date or whenever an employee is expected to accept voluntary redundancy. The Group recognises these costs when it is demonstrably committed to terminating the employment of current employees in line with a formal plan, or providing termination benefits as a result of the expected take up of an offer for voluntary redundancy.

(iv) Defined contribution plans

Contributions to defined contribution plans are recognised as an expense in the Income Statement as incurred.

(v) Defined benefit plans

The Group’s net obligation in respect of defined benefit plans (both funded and unfunded schemes) is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in the current and prior periods, discounting that amount and deducting the fair value of any plan assets.

The calculation of defined benefit obligations is performed annually by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. The fair value of plan assets is measured in accordance with the FRS 102 fair value hierarchy and in accordance with the Group’s policy for similarly held assets. When the calculation of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of the plan assets results in a potential asset for the Group, the recognised asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in the form of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan. To calculate the present value of economic benefits, consideration is given to any applicable minimum funding requirements.

Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to Other Comprehensive Income. These amounts together with the return on plan assets, less amounts included in net interest are disclosed as “Remeasurement of net defined benefit liability”.

The cost of the defined benefit plan recognised in the Income Statement comprises;

  • (a) the increase in pension benefit liability arising from employee service during the period; and
  • (b) the cost of plan introductions, benefit changes, curtailments and settlements.

Negative past service costs are recognised when benefits under the defined benefit pension schemes are modified and such modifications are approved by the Pensions Board.

The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of the plan assets. The cost is recognised in the Income Statement as a finance cost.

(vi) Other long term employee benefits

The Group operates a Long Term Incentive Plan (LTIP). The LTIP is a cash settled notional share-based payment scheme which provides for options to be granted to a limited number of executives and senior management. Options are granted based on the value of a Notional Company “Ornua Long Term Incentive Plan” (Ornua LTIP). The value of Ornua LTIP (and the notional share price) is primarily derived from an adjusted Group EBIT calculation adjusted to reflect product prices returned to members and some other variables. The total amount to be expensed over the vesting period is determined by reference to the fair value of the options granted at the grant date. At each balance sheet date, the Group revises its estimate of the number and value of options that are expected to vest. It recognises the impact of the revision of original estimates, if any, in the Income Statement, and a corresponding adjustment to liabilities.

o) Taxation

Taxation expense for the period comprises current and deferred tax recognised in the reporting period. Tax is recognised in the Income Statement, except to the extent that it relates to items recognised in Other Comprehensive Income or directly in equity.

  • (i) Current tax is recognised for the amount of income tax payable in respect of the taxable profit for the current or past reporting periods using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date. Management periodically evaluates positions in tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulation is subject to interpretation. It establishes provisions where appropriate on the basis of the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities.
  • (ii) Deferred tax is recognised in respect of all timing differences at the reporting date, except as otherwise indicated. Deferred tax is not discounted. Deferred tax assets are only recognised to the extent that it is probable that they will be recovered against the reversal of deferred tax liabilities or other future taxable profits.

Deferred tax is recognised when income or expenses from a subsidiary or associate have been recognised, and will be assessed for tax in a future period, except where:

  • the Group is able to control the reversal of the timing difference; and
  • it is probable that the timing difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

A deferred tax liability or asset is recognised for the additional tax that will be paid or avoided in respect of assets and liabilities that are recognised in a business combination. The amount attributed to goodwill is adjusted by the amount of deferred tax recognised.

Deferred tax is calculated using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date that are expected to apply to the reversal of the timing difference.

p) Provisions and contingent liabilities

Provisions are recognised when the Group has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that the Group will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. Where the effect of the time value of money is material, the amount expected to be required to settle the obligation is recognised at present value using a pre-tax discount rate. The unwinding of the discount is recognised as a finance cost in the Income Statement in the period it arises.

A provision for restructuring is recognised when the Group has a detailed, formal plan for the restructuring and has raised a valid expectation in those affected by either starting to implement the plan or announcing its main features to those affected and therefore has a legal or constructive obligation to carry out the restructuring. Insurance provisions are recognised to cover claims including claims which are known to be incurred but not reported at period end.

Contingent liabilities are not recognised, except those acquired in a business combination. Contingent liabilities arise as a result of past events when (i) it is not probable that there will be an outflow of resources or that the amount cannot be reliably measured at the reporting date or (ii) when the existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of uncertain future events not wholly within the Group’s control. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the financial statements unless the probability of an outflow of resources is remote.

q) Borrowings and cash and cash equivalents

Interest bearing loans and overdrafts are recognised initially at fair value, which is the proceeds received, net of transaction costs. Borrowings are subsequently stated at amortised cost; any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption value is recognised in the Income Statement over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method. Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the Group has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date. All borrowing costs are recognised in the Income Statement in the period in which they are incurred.

Cash and cash equivalents includes cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks, other short term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less and bank overdrafts. Bank overdrafts when applicable are shown within borrowings in current liabilities.

r) Foreign currency translation
(i) Functional and Presentation Currency

The consolidated financial statements are presented in Euro, rounded to thousands, which is the Parent Society’s functional and presentation currency. Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group’s entities are measured using the currency that reflects the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (‘the functional currency’).

(ii) Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the Income Statement, except when deferred in equity as qualifying cash flow hedges or hedges of net investments in foreign operations. Non-monetary items measured at historical cost are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction and non-monetary items measured at fair value are measured using the exchange rate when fair value was determined.

Rates used for translation of results and net assets into Euro:

 Average RatesPeriod end Rates
€ 1 =2015201420152014
US$1.11141.33081.09621.2195
STG0.72670.80690.73460.7838
SAR4.16724.99084.11144.5760
CNY6.90488.17517.08227.4769
(iii) Group Companies

The results and financial position of all of the Group entities that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:

(a) assets and liabilities for each Balance Sheet presented are translated at the closing rate at the date of that Balance Sheet;

(b) goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on the acquisition of a foreign entity are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign entity and are translated at the closing rate;

(c) income and expenses for each Income Statement are translated at actual exchange rates or when they are a reasonable approximation, at average exchange rates; and

(d) all resulting exchange differences are recognised in Other Comprehensive Income and presented within revenue reserves in equity.

s) Impairment of non-financial assets

At each balance sheet date non-financial assets not carried at fair value are assessed to determine whether there is an indication that the asset may be impaired. If there is such an indication of impairment the recoverable amount of the asset is compared to the carrying amount of the asset.

The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risk specific to the asset or Cash Generating Unit (CGU). The impairment loss recognised is the amount by which the asset or CGU’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. Where an asset does not generate cash flows that are independent from other assets, the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the CGU to which the asset belongs. A CGU is the lowest level for which there are separately identifiable cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or groups thereof.

t) Share capital and redeemable loan stock

Ordinary shares are classified as equity.

Redeemable loan stock is included in equity until any redemption is ratified by the Board. On ratification, the amount to be redeemed is moved from equity to liabilities.

u) Related party transactions

The Group discloses transactions with related parties which are not wholly owned within the Group. Where appropriate, transactions of a similar nature are aggregated unless, in the opinion of the directors separate disclosure is necessary to understand the effect of the transactions on the Group financial statements.

v) Financial instruments
(i) Financial assets

Basic financial assets including trade and other receivables, cash and bank balances are initially recognised at transaction price, unless the transaction constitutes a financing transaction, where the transaction is measured at the present value of the future receipts discounted at a market rate of interest.

Such assets are subsequently carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method. At the end of each reporting period financial assets measured at amortised cost are assessed for objective evidence of impairment. If an asset is impaired the impairment loss is the difference between the carrying amount and the present value of the estimated cash flows discounted at the assets original effective interest rate. The impairment loss is recognised in the Income Statement. If there is a decrease in the impairment loss arising from an event occurring after the impairment was recognised, the impairment is reversed. The reversal is such that the current carrying value does not exceed what the carrying amount would have been had the impairment not previously been recognised. The impairment reversal is recognised in the Income Statement.

Other financial assets, including investments in equity instruments which are not subsidiaries, associates or joint ventures are initially measured at fair value which is normally the transaction price. Such assets are subsequently carried at fair value and the changes in fair value are recognised in the Income Statement except the where the investment is in equity instruments that are not publically traded and whose fair values cannot be measured reliably, in which case the investments are measured at cost less impairment.

(ii) Financial liabilities

Basic financial liabilities, including trade and other payables and bank loans are initially recognised at transaction price, unless the arrangement constitutes a financing transaction, where the debt instrument is measured at the present value of the future receipts discounted at a market rate of interest. Debt instruments are subsequently carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method.

(iii) Derivatives

Derivatives including foreign exchange contracts are not basic financial instruments. Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the date the derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at their fair value. Changes in the fair value of derivatives are recognised in the Income Statement unless they are part of a hedging arrangement.

(iv) Hedging arrangements

Derivative financial instruments are mainly used to manage exposures to foreign exchange risks. The Group designates certain derivatives as hedges of the variability in cash flows attributable to a particular risk associated with assets and/or liabilities or highly probable forecast transactions (cash flow hedges). The Group documents at the inception of the hedging transaction the relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. The Group also documents its assessment, both at hedge inception and on an ongoing basis, of the effectiveness of the hedge in offsetting changes in cash flows of hedged items. The fair value of a hedging derivative asset is classified as a current asset. The fair value of a hedging derivative liability is classified as a creditor falling due within one year or after one year based on the remaining maturity of the hedge.

(v) Cash flow hedges

The effective portion of changes in the fair values of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in Other Comprehensive Income and presented in the cash flow hedging reserve. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the Income Statement. Amounts accumulated in equity are reclassified to the Income Statement in the period when the hedged item affects profit or loss. When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss existing in OCI at that time is recognised in the Income Statement when the forecast transaction to which it relates occurs. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that was reported in OCI is immediately reclassified to the Income Statement.

(vi) Derivatives at fair value through profit or loss

Certain derivative instruments do not qualify for hedge accounting. Changes in the fair value of such derivative instruments are recognised immediately in the Income Statement.

(vii) Net investment hedges

Where foreign currency borrowings provide a hedge against a net investment in a foreign operation, to the extent that the hedge is effective foreign exchange differences are recognised in Other Comprehensive Income and presented within revenue reserves.

(viii) Put/call option liabilities

Put/call option liabilities arising as part of business combinations will be recognised at fair value as a financial liability with a corresponding entry to controlling equity. Such liabilities are classified within creditors falling due within one year or after one year based on the expected payment date. The change in the fair value of such options in the period is recognised in the Income Statement.

w) Use of judgements in applying the Group’s accounting policies

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with FRS 102 requires the use of significant judgements, estimates and assumptions. It also requires management to exercise its judgement in the process of applying the Group’s accounting policies. Actual results may differ from these estimates. The areas requiring a higher degree of judgement or complexity, or areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the consolidated financial statements, relate primarily to accounting for deferred income tax, retirement benefit obligations and inventory impairments.

Deferred income tax

Deferred tax assets and liabilities require management judgement in determining the amounts to be recognised. Significant judgement is used when assessing both the extent to which deferred tax assets should be recognised and the amount to be recognised, with consideration given to the timing and level of future taxable income in the relevant tax jurisdiction.

Retirement Benefit Obligations

The determination of the pension cost and defined benefit obligation of the Group’s defined benefit pension schemes depends on the selection of certain assumptions which include, inter alia, the discount rate, inflation rate, salary growth, and longevity, all of which are key judgements. Advice is sourced from independent actuaries in selecting suitable assumptions.

Inventory Impairments

It is necessary to consider the recoverability of the cost of inventory and the associated provisioning required. When calculating the inventory provision, management considers the nature and condition of the inventory, as well as applying assumptions around anticipated saleability of finished goods and future usage of the inventory.

x) Transition to FRS 102

On transition to FRS 102 the Group has taken the following available exemptions:

Business combinations

The Group has elected not to apply Section 19 Business Combinations and Goodwill to business combinations that were effected before the date of transition to FRS 102. As a result, for business combinations before the date of transition to FRS 102, the following apply:

  • (i) intangible assets other than goodwill – intangible assets subsumed within goodwill shall not be separately recognised; and
  • (ii) goodwill – no adjustment shall be made to the carrying value of goodwill.
Lease incentives

The Group has decided not to apply the requirements of FRS 102 in relation to operating lease incentives on existing operating leases at the date of transition to FRS 102. Thus, Ornua continues to recognise such lease incentives in accordance with our previous GAAP treatment (over the period to the next market rent review).